Generating Schema


  • A schema is metadata that defines the structure, properties, and relationships between data. It also defines the rules that must be adhered to and is usually in the form of a document
  • A structured approach is always recommended for handling and manipulating data
  • The “$ref” keyword is used to reference a schema


  • A schema definition makes the process of handling data more structured
  • The process of validation and handling user input errors can be imprioved through the use of schemas
  • Schemas encourage the ‘single source of truth’ (single place to update a definition) concept which, among other things, makes it easier to create and maintain endpoints

Best Practices

  • It is advisable to always use a schema when you define and implement your API
  • Use schemas to rapidly extract titles, descriptions, and samples for easy API documentation

JSON Schema

  • JSON (Javascript Object Notation) is a popular, human readable data format that is easy to parse at the server or client side
  • JSON Schema is a standard that contains information about the properties of a JSON object that can be used by an API. It also helps validate the structure of JSON data -The properties include: name, title, type etc.
  • JSON Schema Specification is divided into three parts:
    • JSON Schema Core: describes the basic foundation of JSON Schema
    • JSON Schema Validation: describes methods that define validation constraints. It also describes a set of keywords that can be used to specify validations
    • JSON Hyper-Schema: an extension of the JSON Schema Specification that defines hyperlink, images, and hypermedia-related keywords


Assume you have an API that requires data provided in the format below:

  pets: [
    {id:1 petName: "Blaze", petType: "Canine", age: 2},
    {id: 2, petName: "Felicia", petType: "Feline", age: 1}
    {id: 2, petName: "Bolt", petType: "Canine", age: 3}

As seen above, each object in the pets array contains the following properties: id, petName, and petType. You can create a schema definition to validate the data and ensure it is in the expected format. The schema definition is outlined below:

  "properties": {
    "pets": {
      "type": "array",
      "items": {
        "type": "object",
        "properties": {
          "id": {"type": "number"},
          "petName": {"type": "string", "required": true},
          "petType": {"type": "number", "required": true},
          "age": {"type": "number"}

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